Hrvatska Akademija Znanosti i Umjetnosti

Hrvatska Kristalografska Zajednica


Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Croatian Crystallographic Association




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Suvremena kristalografija u Hrvatskoj

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Crystallography in Croatia

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Crystallography in Croatia


 Mineralogy & Petrology

 General & Inorganic Chemistry


 Material sciences

 Chemical & Biological Crystallography

 Solid state chemistry










2. Mineralogy & petrology


2.1  Department of Mineralogy, Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (University of Zagreb)


Dragutin Slovenec


Crystal structure and microstructure of minerals have been studied by XRD and related to physical and chemical properties. A special attention has been paid to phyllosilicates, biotites and muscovites, taken from various rocks (the Papuk Mt in Croatia), and their polytypism has been studied on the basis of  Weissenberg and zero layer  rotation single crystal diffraction patterns and powder diffraction patterns. Simple polytypes 1M, 2M1(most common) and 3T were found in biotite. Also, more complex polytypes in biotite  having 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17 (shown in attached figure, R is a 1M sub- cell) and 20 single mica layers were detected. In a number of cases an epitactic overgrowth of various (ordered and partially ordered) polytypes was observed. The parameters of the 1M sub-cell of biotite, deduced from zero-layer rotation patterns, depended on the chemical composition and not on the particular polytype ( D. Slovenec, S.Popović, Is it possible to differentiate with certainty the polytypes of biotite 2M1 and 1M according to their X-ray powder diffraction patterns? Geol. vjesnik, 39 (1981) 203, Zagreb).


2.2  Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science (University of  Zagreb)


 Vladimir Bermanec


   The early days of crystallography in Croatia are, like in most other places, intimately associated with developments in the field of mineralogy. The Chair of Mineralogy and Geology was established in 1874, by Decree of the Emperor (of the Austro-Hungarian Empire). Djuro Pilar started teaching regular classes in the spring of 1875. Since then, the Chair has undergone developments in several directions, but crystallography certainly has remained one of its mainstream activities. After Djuro Pilar, the Chair of Mineralogy and Geology was headed by eminent professors, many of them members of the Academy of Sciences and Arts – Mijo Kišpatić, Fran Tućan, Ljudevit Barić, Miroslav Tajder and Stjepan Šćavničar. It needs to be mentioned that the first mineralogists from Bulgaria, Georgij Bončev and L. Vankov obtained their doctor degree under the supersvision of  Djuro Pilar. Early research activities in the field of crystallography involved morphological studies of crystals and symmetry determinations by microscopic methods – techniques which are somewhat unrighteously neglected these days. Optical crystallographic methods were later developed and applied for the deteremination of minerals and other crystalline substances. Ljudevit Barić made significant contributions to the development of these methods and teaching them to students. Scientific progress in the fields of physics and chemistry was followed by the introduction of X-ray methods of analysis. The equipment consisted of reflexion goniometers, polarizing microscopes, X-ray diffraction cameras, modern diffractometers and electron microscopes. Stjepan Šćavničar contributed significantly to the development and application of crystallographic methods, particularly in the field of crystal structure determinations of stibnite and a series of synthetic compounds. From 1955 onwards he headed crystallographic research at the Institute and procured equipment ranging from early X-ray generators and cameras to a modern powder diffractometer. His work in experimental mineralogy resulted in the late 50-ies of the 20th century in one of the first successful hydrothermal synthesis of beryl. He taught mineralogy and chemistry many generations of students, supervising numerous masters and doctoral theses. This modern instrumentation is nowadays still used for crystallometric measurements, although in the process of determination of new minerals and a better characterisation of existing ones. Such research involves the implementation of powder- and single- crystal diffractometry and electron microscopy, but also thermal methods of analysis, Raman and IR spectrometry and microanalysis. More than 10 new minerals have been identified and determined in the Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology. This type of resarch invloves the application of complex investigation methods, resulting in precise determinations of crystallographic data including crystal morphology, structure, physical properties such as optical constants, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage and specific ones such as electric or magnetic properties. Chemical information is always used to determine the chemical composition and formula of the investigated materials, as well as for genetic considerations and thermodynamic stability issues. Our researchers therefore closely collaborate with investigators in associated fields. New areas of research include experimental mineralogy, biomineralization processes and environmental mineralogy. Today, professors Vladimir Bermanec and Darko Tibljaš are leading researchers in the field of crystallography, educating not only younger colleagues at the Institute but also collaborating closely with researchers in Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Austria, Hungary, Canada, Brasil and Russia.




























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